FreeBSD 10 / PCBSD 10 and Edimax 7811un

March 5, 2014

FreeBSD 10 supports the Edimax 7811un (RTL8188CUS chipset, FreeBSD calls the device “urtnw0″) right off the bat.  BUT…there is a small trick to get it working if you don’t see the error message.  Plug in your 7811un to your PC.  Install FreeBSD.

**** if you are using PC-BSD, do the same steps as below.  You’ll have to go into /boot/loader.conf.pcbsd file and edit out the step 3 options.

Do the following:

1. setup your /etc/rc.conf with the following…
ifconfig_wlan0=”WPA DHCP”

2. setup your /etc/wpa_supplicant.conf with the following…(my network is WPA2)


3. setup your /boot/loader.conf file with the following…

***The last line is the most important.  If you don’t add that it won’t work.  

4. REBOOT  -  this is a must.

Thats it.  It should come up on its own.  This is if you have your network setup with a WPA2 encryption.  If you need additional help, consult the FreeBSD Handbook wireless section.

ASA Rommon mode – image issue

February 18, 2014

If you accidentally erased the whole flash drive and killed any images you had.  Here is how you restore.  Create a TFTP server


Rommon mode:

  • ADDRESS=192.168.1.x
  • GATEWAY=192.168.1.x
  • SERVER=192.168.1.x)
  • IMAGE= (IMAGE file)
  • Tftpdnld -> hit enter
  •  do a reset

Make sure you confreg is 0×0000001

Windows 2003 to Windows 2008R2 CA server migration

February 15, 2014


We use Windows CA server at work for our Cisco ASA’s.  We wanted to upgrade to 2008R2.  Below are the links or instructions to setting that up.  We use a SinglePassword setup due to us deploying ASA’s all the time to new locations.

- Migration of the CA’s to from old Server to new Server.  Follow this document.  FYI:  give the new server the same name and same CA name.  The default setup in 2008 will try to attach a “CA” at the end of the server name.  In windows 2003, this didnt happen.  So be careful.

-  setting up SinglePassword setup.   FYI:  instructions are wrong for the Registry path, its HKEY_LOCAL_MACHINE\System\Microsoft\…..

Access your CA server to get password info.
http://<ip address>/certsrv/mscep_admin/

Also, you may need to restart IIS or the system.  The first initial time during setup it took it a bit to come up.

PF Firewall settings

February 7, 2014

Here are my PF settings.  Very basic for a firewall on one PC.  I’m not running a router or gateway off my PC.

What this does is block everything coming in, allow anything out and remember its state status so it can come back in.  I do allow SSH to come from the outside and to protect me from hackers I have enabled <ssh_bruteforce> and made it add IP address that have 3 bad login attempts in 60 seconds to be added to the list.  They will be blocked indefinitely.


# Steve’s PF Firewall Rules

ext_if = “ale0″
ext_ip = “( ” $ext_if ” )”
tcp_services = “{ 22 }”
#icmp_types = “echoreq”

# Tables
table <ssh_bruteforce> persist

# Return a reset for all blacks
set block-policy return

# Ignore the loopback
set skip on lo0

# Anything in the blacklist should be stopped here
block in quick on $ext_if from <ssh_bruteforce> to any

block in all
pass proto icmp all
pass out all keep state
pass in on $ext_if proto tcp from any to $ext_ip port $tcp_services flags S/SA keep state (max-src-conn-rate 3/60, overload <ssh_bruteforce> flush global)

Cisco 2900 voice router – Unavailable Resource erro

February 7, 2014

Cisco 2900 router with T1 setup.  Calls were coming in but we were getting a “unavailable resources” error.  The error made it seem like our router was generating the error and it was but it was due to the telco’s router/equipment.   It would then disconnect the call but first it seemed like it transferred it back to the local telco switch.

#debug isdn q931

Cause i = 0x82AF – Resource unavailable, unspecified

Found the error code HERE.

We rebooted the telco equipment and all works well.  What seems to have happened is the telco router was trying to use a channel we do not use when it set up the call.

IP SLA config sample

January 3, 2014

Simple setup with two ISP’s.   One ISP plugs directly into the router (mpls network), the second ISP plugs into an ASA, the ASA then plugs into the router.

We have set all traffic other than destined for the MPLS network to go out thru the ASA connected ISP.  If that link fails, the default route for the MPLS network, which is OSPF, will kick in until the ISP connected to the ASA comes up.

IPADDRESS = Any IP address pingable on that ISP’s side.  Preferably use the ISP’s DNS server.
INTERFACE = Interface connected to the second ISP, or in my case the ASA.

(*) = optional

##### config ######

ip sla 1
icmp-echo {IPADDRESS} source-interface {INTERFACE}
* frequency 10
ip sla schedule 1 life forever start-time now
track 1 ip sla 1 reachability
* delay down 10 up 1

ip route track 1
ip route track 1

Bash backup script

December 15, 2013

Just a simple back up script and my cron entry.  This script will check to see if your USB device exist.  If so, it mounts, it rsyncs, it echo’s a date and a “complete” string into a file then unmounts the drive.  If the USB device don’t exist, it echos a fail into a file.

My script runs every night 1 minute after 3am.

*Reason I have unmount is so I can just yank it out whenever I want.  Also, with any *nix, there is more than one way to skin a cat, this is my way I figured out on my own.

#######  SCRIPT ########


if [ -e '/dev/da0p1' ] ; then

/sbin/mount /dev/da0p1 /backup

/usr/local/bin/rsync -a –delete /data/ /backup/

echo “$(date) COMPLETE” >> /home/user/backup.log

/sbin/umount -f /backup


echo “$(date) FAILED” >> /home/user/backup.log


##############  CRONTAB ENTRY ##########

1 3 * * * root cd /home/user && ./


FreeBSD handy commands

December 11, 2013

These are just some commands for trouble issues, kernel, device, etc stuff.

- usbconfig   check USB devices

- pciconf -lv   check PCI devices

- kldstat – check kernel modules

- fsck -t ufs -y /dev/ (drive/slice)    “/dev/da0p1″


Install FreeBSD 9.1/9.2 on Acer Veriton N2620G

December 10, 2013

Here I describe how to and any issues getting FreeBSD 9.2 on this nettop.

To install FreeBSD, follow the ever easy to follow Handbook…click here.  You can also use my install guide for FreeBSD 9.1, pretty similar…click here.


- with 9.2, the BIOS with the Acer doesnt seem to like GPT partitions. You’ll need to use MBR in the partition section of the Handbook.  With GPT it wont recognize the drive.

- With partitioning in MBR, you need to do a Manual partition instead of Guided when you come to the Install.  You will Delete the very top GPT partition.  Then Create a new one but using MBR.  Specify the whole drive and no mount point.  You should see the first partition show up underneath the top one.  Highlight it.

Now we need to create two partition.  One for the root (/) and one for SWAP.   This is just a single drive, no reason to get fancy with different partition tables, just always back up your shit.

Partition swap –  hit Create.  In the name you see “FreeBSD”  change this to “Freebsd-swap”, specify the size.  Here the general rule of thumb is usually twice the amount of RAM.  if you have 2 GB go with 4GB swap.   Thats all.

Partition #1 – hit Create.  Leave the name the same.  Use the rest of the size left.  And for mount point put a ” / ”  (forward slash for root).   Don’t put the quotes.

USB3 – It works but there seems to be an issue.  I will have to check into it.  I was in Gnome, went to do a copy/paste from my USB 3 drive to my desktop and my computer did a reboot right away.  I put the USB drive on USB2 port, did a fsck to recover it and mounted it manually instead of automatic thru Gnome.  I did a copy thru command line and it works.  So once I get my data off of it I will test different scenarios.

***** UPDATE on USB3******  USB3 on 9.1 will not work correctly on this device.  I saw in the forums that there was a fix for 9.2 release.  9.1 sees it as USB3 but any device you plug into the USB3 will show up on the USB2 bus.

Package management – If you want to switch to PKGNG, which is the newest utility, follow the Handbook but if you have any issues, see my Forum post HERE.  the fix is towards the bottom.

Thats is all.  It picked up most of my hardware except for Wifi, I never planned on using it anyways so I never loaded the drivers.

Follow the rest of the Handbook or my guide for installing the system and getting it up to speed.  Good luck and happy computing!

Acer Veriton N2620G – Add memory and change hard drive

December 10, 2013

Newegg had a good deal on this light weight and low power consumption desktop/nettop.  Click here to see details.  It only came with 2GB of memory and 320GB hard drive.  I decided to upgrade it to 8GB memory and 1TB hard drive.

Here is a brief tutorial on opening this baby up and taking it apart to upgrade.  You have to take the motherboard out to get to the screws that are holding the hard drive down underneath.

If you really need to know how to change the memory, here is a YouTube video for a different but similar model…click here

Tools needed:  Pliers, screw driver and a very small screw driver (eye glass repair kit small).

1. First, place the nettop with the DVI/HDMI facing you.  There is a screw next in the middle, take it out.

photo 1

2.  Now just lightly pull the cover off by pulling up on the side with the screw.  It will just pop off.

3.  There is a metal cover underneath the plastic cover.  Remove the 4 black screws.

4.  Once the metal cover is off, we can now see the board as below.  Where there are red circles are the screws and post you need to remove.  4 silver board post, 4 heatsink/fan screws, and one audio board screw.

photo 3

5. After the screws are removed, we need to remove the audio board.  You will pull up and then out but do it lightly.

photo 4

6. Once you remove the audio board, remove the WiFi antenna wires, the white and black wires as see in the above photo. (they may be taped to the board, just lift up the tape.

7.  Now we can remove the board.  You’ll remove the board by pulling up on the far end.  Pull up and then out.  You may need to push out on the case to get it over the rim.

photo 2

8.  Hopefully you successfully removed the board.  Now all you have to do is turn it over and you’ll see the 4 screws for the hard drive.

9.  Do everything in reverse to put it back together again!

I put FreeBSD 9.2 on my little Acer nettop.  If you want to know the process for that, click here.


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